India is an agricultural country. 70-75% of our population depends on agriculture. One-third of our country’s national income comes from agriculture. Our economy is based on agriculture. We have to do a lot for the development of agriculture and for the economic welfare of our country.
Essay on the agricultural system in India
History of Indian Agriculture
Our agriculture was not fully developed for a long time and we could not produce enough food for our people. Our country used to buy grains from other countries, but now things are changing.
India is producing more food grains than it needs. Some food grains are sent to other countries. Extreme improvements have been made. Agriculture Through our five-year plans, the green revolution in agriculture has been brought.
Now our country matters of food grains are self-sufficient. It is now in a position to export surplus grains and other agricultural products to other countries.
India now ranks first in the world in tea and groundnut production. It ranks second in the world in the production of rice, sugarcane, jute and oil seeds. Before Independence, our agriculture depended on rain.
As a result, our agricultural produce was very small. If the monsoon was good, we would have got a good crop and if the monsoon had not been good, the crop yields would have deteriorated and there was famine in some parts of the country.
Government Plans for Agriculture in India
After independence, our government has made several plans for the development of its agriculture. Canals and dams were built on several major rivers to provide water for irrigation of the land.
For irrigation of the area where canal water cannot reach, farmers were provided with tube-wells and pump-sets. The use of better seeds, fertilizers and new technologies in agriculture has led to a revolution called Green Revolution in agriculture, due to which our agricultural production has increased manifold, but progress has still not been made in sufficient quantity.
Our population is growing rapidly, every year we have “millions of children born to us, whose food we have to supply. We must examine this rapidly growing population.
In earlier times we did not have adequate irrigation facilities. The farmers mainly depended on rain water for irrigation. The canals and tube-wells were very few. As part of the five-year plan, our government has built dams on several rivers.
Bhakra-Nangal Project, Damodar Valley Project, Hirakud Dam, Nagarjuna Sagar Dam, Krishna Sagar Dam and Mettur Dam are some of these dams. Today water is collected in large lakes and reservoirs for our industries and agriculture and for generating electricity.
The water of the dams is brought by canals to distant lands for irrigation. Tube wells and pumping sets have been supplied to farmers. Now more land is irrigated and better crops are being produced.
Fertilizers And Fertilizers
Our earth was losing its fertility, which can now be cultivated continuously for years, cattle dung, which is the best form of manure, can be used as fuel. The use of fertilizers and fertilizers helps in maintaining soil fertility.
Our government has set up fertilizer plants at Nangal, Sindri, Trombay, Gorakhpur, Kamrup and Neyveli. Apart from this, many new fertilizer factories are being constructed. Some chemical fertilizers are being imported from other countries. The government is supplying sufficient fertilizers to the farmers. The use of these “chemical fertilizers has increased our agricultural production manifold.
Our farmers were using ancient methods of agriculture. But for some years they have been sowing seeds produced by them. The seeds used earlier did not have quality and yield was low. Now the government is getting seeds of high yielding varieties of fields to the farmers. These good quality seeds have greatly increased the yield of our farms.
Area of land Under a type of farming, the area of land is decreasing from year to year. To overcome this deficiency, more and more wasteland should be revived and measures should be taken. The government is boosting agricultural yields, using appropriate chemicals and irrigation facilities to reclaim more wasted land.
Better Medicines and Pesticides
Insects and diseases cause a lot of damage to crops. Crops should be protected against pesticides and insects to get proper yield. The government is supplying pesticides and pesticides to farmers at subsidized rates, the use of pesticides and pesticides has increased the quantity and quality of agricultural production. The soil loses its fertility by repeated sowing of the same crop.
To get better yield from the land, complete rotation of crops is a good way, changing the cropping pattern keeps the land fertility and produces better crops, so the crop should be rotated by the farmers.
Bank Loan and Better Equipment or Machines
This can make the plowing deeper in the land and in less time the area is ready for sowing. Today, banks and cooperatives give loans to farmers at low rates of interest, with these loans farmers buy new tools, fertilizers, better seeds and new machinery for the farm.
A large number of farmers now use tractors for ducts, sowing and harvesting of crops, they have purchased new equipment for farming, making farming more easy and convenient. This leads to agricultural production in our country.
Now the government is trying to educate the farmers. Agricultural colleges and universities have been established. Young teachers impart all kinds of knowledge related to agricultural science to agricultural students.
These colleges and universities have organized orientation courses for farmers, these courses train people in modern techniques and methods of farming. With the help of Doordarshan, Akashvani and other agricultural TV channels, farmers are being educated about new technologies in farming, they have started special programs especially for farmers like Krishi Darshan and Kheti Ki Baat.
The government is trying to help the farmers in many ways. He has set up institutions like Food Corporation to do agriculture directly at the government rate of agricultural expenses directly from the farmers, in which the farmers have direct relationship with the government, there is no place for middlemen.
Thus we see that the government is making every effort to develop our agriculture and increase agricultural production. We still do not have to stop, we have to continue our efforts to take our agriculture still further.