This reality cannot be denied that even today the majority of farmers in our country fall under the category of marginal or small farmers. Broadly, such farmers mean farmers with land holding less than one hectare. The yield of most of these farmers has been limited to the production of suitable food grains for their families. Surplus yield is far away – due to floods, droughts or other disasters, it is sometimes difficult for farmers to bear the cost of farming. Even if you get good yield, it is difficult to get a fair price.
Even perishable crops like fruits and vegetables have to be forced to sell in the hands of local buyers at throwaway prices. Due to all such reasons, the children of the farming family currently shy away from making agriculture the basis of earning income and consider migrating to cities in search of employment as a better option. These rural youths take such steps in zeal but do not think that despite the troubles of urban life and working tirelessly, their life will remain entangled in the struggle to gather the rot of June 2.
Under the Union Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, under the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) functioning as the apex body for conducting and managing agricultural research and agricultural education in the country, more than 103 agricultural research institutes, project directorates and about 700 agriculture Continuous work is being done in this field by science centers.
Through them to make agriculture profitable especially for marginal, small and medium farmers, low cost farming techniques, integrated farming system, animal husbandry with farming, sugar farming, fisheries, bee keeping, silk production, food processing, organic farming, scientific All agricultural systems and technologies and techniques based on different aspects of farming have been developed.
Using these, marginal farmers can not only produce many crops throughout the year with their small holdings but can easily get additional income by adopting integrated / mixed agriculture. Let us discuss similar low cost agricultural technologies / techniques which have been prepared by various research institutes of the Council. Even small and marginal farmers can easily adopt them without much investment.
- 1 Increase income from coarse grains
- 2 Earning from java citronella
- 3 Onion and garlic-based new technologies
- 4 Agricultural income increased due to water technology
- 5 Agricultural machinery
- 6 Benefits of IPM system in Basmati Paddy
- 7 Profit from inter-cropping system
- 8 Income from central crops
- 9 Importance of Kumat
- 10 Agricultural practices for organic farming
- 11 Integrated farming system model
- 12 Low cost method for potato production
- 13 Benefits of Isabgol cultivation
Increase income from coarse grains
Minor grains such as jowar, samwan, kutki, kodas, chena, kangni, ragi can be mentioned in this category. There is plenty of protein, fiber, vitamins etc. in them. As a result of the hard work of scientist of ICAR-Indian Institute of Scientific Research, Hyderabad, it has been possible to develop advanced technologies for cultivation of coarse grains of various types which lead to higher yields (up to 58 per cent) with better quality (up to 78 per cent). Can also be taken.
These new techniques emphasize the option of earning more income from the cultivation of end crops (jowar-arhar, jowar-soyabean etc.). Various coarse grains capable of producing high yields have also been developed in this sequence. For example, the jowar hybrid-CSH17, a variety capable of producing high yields, may be mentioned. This makes more than 50 percent yield as compared to the varieties of jowar prevalent.
Earning from java citronella
Due to various industrial and domestic uses, its oil demand has increased considerably in recent years. Lemongrass-like oil comes out from its leaves. This oil is sold in the market at the rate of 1000 to 1200 rupees per kg.
150-200 kg in the first year of cultivation and 200-300 kg in the second to fifth year oil is obtained from the harvesting of this multi-year grass-roots crop. The first year is spent on its sowing. Thereafter, in the following years, it costs negligible. Broadly, the farmer gets 50-70 percent net profit or up to Rs 80 thousand per hectare. Authorized information about this can be obtained from ICAR-North-East Institute of Science and Technology, Jorhat.
Onion and garlic-based new technologies
Onion and garlic production in Kharif season is less. Factors such as water logging, pest and disease outbreaks and weeds are mainly responsible for this. Such technologies of onion production have also been developed in Kharif by Directorate of ICAR-Onion and Garlic Research, Pune using which farmers can get higher prices by increasing the productivity of these crops. For example, under the guidance of the Directorate, one can refer to Mr. Namdevrao Adau, a farmer from Deulgaon, Vidarbha, who succeeded in getting an income of up to Rs 2.60 lakh from the ‘Bhima Super’ onion variety on his 4 acres of land.
Agricultural income increased due to water technology
The rainwater in the fields usually flows without any use and along with this the upper layer of fertile soil of the farm also goes away. To solve this problem, a special water harvesting technology has been developed by ICAR-Central Rainfed Agricultural Research Institute, Hyderabad. Under this, ponds are made in the lower part of the field and the drainage of the field is carried through the drains to this pond. The farmers get double benefit of this. Firstly, the availability of water is ensured for irrigation of crops even in the event of drought and secondly, additional income can also be obtained from fish farming in this pond.
Those who reduce the cost of sugarcane cultivation
Sugarcane farming is becoming very expensive for the farmers due to the increasing cost of agricultural labor and the prevalence of farming of farm animals. In order to overcome this problem, ICAR-Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research, Lucknow has developed all kinds of agricultural equipment / instruments required for sugarcane cultivation. With their help, significant savings are possible in the preparation of sugarcane fields, sowing, weeding-weeding and other agricultural activities. It is possible to reduce the quantity of seeds and fertilizers by 15-20 percent, increase in density of sugarcane plants by 5-20 percent, increase in productivity by 10-15 percent and saving in labor cost by 20-80 percent.
Benefits of IPM system in Basmati Paddy
Due to lack of immunity against insect diseases in most of the basmati paddy species, there is a significant reduction in yield due to diseases such as Tanabadhaka, leaf wrapper, brown pudding, perfumed bug, sheath blight, blast and goat. Specific models have been developed in place of IPM (Integrated Pest Management) by scientists from ICAR-National Center for Integrated Pest Management, New Delhi, which can benefit the basmati paddy farmers of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Uttarakhand. Due to their use, reduction in spraying of pesticides, use of balanced amount of fertilizers and reduction in fertilizer cost and saving of irrigation and wages is considerable. Thus the total crop cost also decreases. Not only this, the price of such paddy prepared by using less pesticides is also available in the market.
Profit from inter-cropping system
In this system, two or more crops can be produced simultaneously in the same field, in the same season and at the same time. In this way, more production per unit area can be taken at a lower cost. In this method it is possible to grow pulses as well as cereal crops. Weeds can also be controlled in this intercultural cropping system by planting a direct spreading crop. Not only this, crops can also be protected from diseases and pests by this method, such as growing coriander in the gram crop as an intermittent crop, the higher yields can be obtained by preventing the pests in the gram.
Income from central crops
Farmers engaged in cultivation of potato and other central crops (cassava, sweet potato, jimikand tenia, yam arrowroot etc.) can significantly increase their income by adopting suitable varieties, modern production and conservation techniques or processing technologies. It will not be believed but it is true that the net income of potato in West Bengal is almost three times more than that of rice and wheat and similarly in Bihar, there is much more profit than potato in comparison to traditional crops. A number of value-added food products are also made from these central crops. These can mainly mention snack food, pasta etc. prepared from potato chips and cassava. Cassava is also not less important in bio ethanol production.
Importance of Kumat
Kumat is a tree which gives gum. This gum is of very high quality and is sold in the market at the rate of 500 to 800 rupees per kg. It is used in pharmaceutical industry, food products and other industries. Generally these trees grow on semi-arid climate and narrow-stony land. Under agro-forestry, a large amount of income can be obtained from year to year by growing it on a large scale. More information about this can be obtained from ICAR-Agricultural Forestry Research Institute, Jhansi.
Agricultural practices for organic farming
Due to the high market value of organic products or organic products, it is natural for farmers to be attracted to organic farming in large numbers. In view of the increasing popularity of organic agriculture among farmers, organic farming practices based on 45 crops / cropping methods have been developed. These are being disseminated through National Organic Agriculture Center, Traditional Agricultural Development Scheme and National Horticulture Mission.
Integrated farming system model
45 multi-entrepreneur integrated farming system models based on diverse crops, horticultural products, agro-forestry, livestock and fisheries have been developed to suit small and marginal farmers with the aim of increasing agricultural productivity in different agro-ecological regions of the country. With their use, the income of farmers can be increased to Rs 1.5-3.5 lakhs. For detailed information related to these farming systems, ICAR-Indian Institute of Agricultural Systems Research, Modipuram can be contacted.
Low cost method for potato production
Potato farming requires far more investment than other crops. In this way, about 35-40 percent of the cost of farming is spent on seeds, about 40 percent of agricultural wages, 14 percent on fertilizers and fertilizers and 7 percent on irrigation. Specific technology has been developed by ICAR-Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla to save expenditure on labor, seeds, tillage, fertilizer and irrigation investments in potato production. Farmers can adopt this and produce more profits by producing potatoes at a lower cost.
Benefits of Isabgol cultivation
Isabgol is an important crop that is grown in Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan during the Rabi season. Its seed cover is known as husk and has many medicinal properties. Would be surprised to know